Glossary of Terms


Television  |  Print  |  Internet

After Effects®

A popular Adobe software for creating motion graphics in 2D and 3D space.  Used in non-linear edit systems (see Offline), it can integrate with other Adobe software titles, e.g., Illustrator®, Photoshop® (such as layered package art files),  etc., as well as a host of third-party plug-ins developed on an ongoing basis.


A test commercial made using illustrated drawings edited together with a soundtrack.


A technique for creating movement in artwork or other inanimate objects by frames of motion picture film with several small progressive displacements of the subject so planned that when projected the image appears to be in motion.


A sequence of events that happens within the form of a piece of music.


Person who adapts a musical composition by scoring for voices or instruments.

Assistant Director (AD)

“Right arm of Director.”  Organizes production sets, prepares shooting schedule, maintains order on set.

Audio Mix

Process by which all audio elements of a project (sync dialogue, voice-over recording, sound design/effects, music) are assembled into a final mix.

Avid® (see ”Offline”)


In production, the part of the scene farthest from the camera.  In post-production, the bottom-most layer of a multi-layered image.

Blue (Green) Screen

Special effects photography in which a subject is photographed in front of a uniformly illuminated blue or green screen.  During the effects process, the color screen is electronically eliminated and replaced with a new background to produce a composite image with the appearance of a single shot.

Boom Man

Operates the microphone boom on each synchronous sound take.

Call Sheet

Production schedule listing crew and Actors, arrival time for makeup or production, wardrobe and prop requirements, and other shooting and production data.

Camera Assistant(s)

Checks out camera prior to shoot; loads and unloads camera; keeps slates; follows focus; keeps camera reports.

Camera Operator

Physically operates camera.


Computer-Generated Imagery.

Close-Up (CU)

Object or part of an object seen by the camera at close range and framed tightly.


The process of choosing values for color and/or density prior to (film to tape) telecine transfer or color grading of high definition image files.


The artist who operates the telecine and its associated color grading equipment, while collaborating with those who have shot the film or HD content.  The Colorist works with the agency Creative Team, the Director and Cinematographer, manipulating the color, shading, positioning of images and speeds prior to layoff to videotape, or kept as digital files in a DI (Digital Intermediate) process.


Working in a layering environment to combine images in a hierarchical order.


Even and logical succession of events (shots).  See also Script Supervisor.


The range of light to dark values present in a film, standard definition video or high definition image image.


All audio voice material to be aired.

Craft Services

Handyperson on set.  Handles food table, refreshments and sundry items for the crafts people hired as the crew for the production day.


Instantaneous transition from one shot to another.  Also, the act of trimming and joining film shots together.

Cut Away

Shot that temporarily draws the spectator’s attention from the main action, e.g., a close-up showing the reaction of a by-stander to a street fight.


A video transfer of the production day’s film material or the down conversion of high definition raw files to a smaller file format to be used in the offline edit process.


Digital Audio Tape.  A tape-based digital audio format used in synchronous recording during production in a process separate from the camera.  Also used as a back-up to hard disk recorders.


The person who has basic responsibility for the effective execution of a production.  He/she translates the creative concept into film or tape.

Director of Photography (DP)

Technically responsible for overall “look” of the film; supervises camera and lighting crew; may operate camera.


Dutch tilt, Dutch angle, oblique angle, German angle, canted angle or Batman Angle are terms used for a cinematic visual approach.  A Dutch angle is achieved by tilting the camera off to the side so that the shot is composed with the horizon at an angle to the bottom of the frame.  The effect is usually accomplished with a “Dutch Head,” a fluid head camera support with two axes of movement.


Digital Visual Effects tool in post-production.

Depth Of Field

The distance between the points nearest and farthest from the camera that is acceptably sharp.


Lines spoken by characters in a scene.


Gradual transition from one scene to another.  As the first scene is fading out, the second is fading in over it.  There are several types, including lap, matching and cross dissolves.


Making videotape, DVD, or digital file copy, e.g., from a D5 (master) or ProRes® file for approval copies or from a dubbing master for trafficking/distribution


That phase of production in which the creative and electronic act of selecting and organizing footage into a completed film narrative is accomplished.

EFX Operator

Sets up and operates any equipment that provides special effects, e.g., smoke, wind, snow, etc.


Checks power, assists DP in ordering equipment and achieving desired lighting effects.  Head Electrician is known as the Gaffer.


Performer in a minor role who does not speak or is not key to the action.  A performer who does not meet all of the criteria to be considered an on-camera principal.


To begin or end a scene in a motion picture or television production by gradually increasing (fade in) or decreasing (fade out) the amount of light through the lens so that the screen goes from black to the correct exposure or vice versa.

Final Cut Pro® (see ”Offline”)

Fire Fighter

Employed when required by law.  Location-dependent.


High end, 3D, visual effects software for creating visual effects, compositing, graphics, color grading and conform for commercials or films.

Generator Operator

Operates generator for power supply on location shoots.


Handles rigging, sets up supports for lights, sets up dollies, cranes, etc.  Handles heavy equipment.  Head Grip is known as the Key Grip.

Hair Person

Dresses hair of on-camera talent.

HDTV or High Definition Television

A form of digital television characterized by a wide screen shape (16:9 aspect ratio), richer, more detailed, crystal-clear pictures, and Dolby Digital 5.1 channel surround sound.

Home Economist

Shops and prepares foods needed on set.  Responsible for making food look great for filming.

Inside Prop

Handles all props, keeps inventory, makes sure props are replenished, etc.  Sometimes known as “Set Dresser.”

Jump Cut

A mismatching of the action or subject in two adjacent scenes, with the result that the subject jumps from one position in the frame to another.


An image format in which a wide-screen film is transferred by filling the video frame area with the entire width of the film frame and masking any surplus image showing above and below.  This preserves the original aspect ratio of the program.  A 16:9 HD image transferred to 4:3 SD would be presented in letterbox format.

Lip Sync (Synchronization)

The relationship of sound and picture in which lip action matches the sound.


A test commercial made using rough, live production edited together with a soundtrack.

Live Action

A complete film, or sequence of a film, or type in which live actors or real objects are photographed.

Live Recording

Recording of dialogue and other sounds while a scene is actually being filmed.

Location Photography

Natural setting, away from the studio, where shots for a film are taken.

Location Scout

Searches for locations.  Researches and photographs all pos­sibilities.  Aids in securing necessary permits and negotiates fees.

Make-Up Person

Applies make-up to on-camera talent.


The head person in sound department.  Responsible for overall sound.


Combining several different sound recordings, such as voice, music and sound effects, to produce a single, final sound track called a mix track.


Filmed/recorded without sound.

NTSC (National Television System Committee)

The video broadcast standard for the United States.

Nurse/First Aid

Hired to take care of any infants or children on set or location.


Historically, “offline” is the videotape post-production in an editing suite, not using the original videotape or full online editing rooms with switchers and digital effects.  It saves both money and time to work offline before conforming from the original VTR using the online equipment.  Currently, offline edit work takes place within a non-linear edit (NLE) system such as Avid® Final Cut Pro®, or Smoke®.  NLEs use digitized files from videotape dailies or files down-converted from RAW HD (RED Cam®, Arri Alexia®, Phantom®, etc.) or “standard” HD (1920 x 1080 or 1280 x 720).  During this offline process, creative editing is done and the majority of the decisions are made as to how a spot will be put together.  Offline is where you choose which scenes to use and how long they will last, whether there will be cuts, dissolves, fades, etc., what sound effects and audio elements may be used, and anything else that will determine the look and feel of the spot.  With modern NLEs, once the offline cut is approved, an Edit Decision List (EDL) is used for selecting scenes for color-correction and is used to guide final edit, or online conform.  Consumer examples of an NLE software include Apple iMovie® and Windows Movie Maker® and Adobe Premier®.


Where all the final elements for the spot are assembled.  These elements generally include the final audio mix, the final color-corrected video takes, and any graphic elements or special effects that have been generated.  Final touches, such as titling, are added during this online process.

Outside Prop

Meets with Director and Set Designer and locates necessary dressings, furniture, etc.; responsible for creating atmospheric effects, e.g., smoke, fog, etc.


Scenes photographed and processed, but not used in the finished picture.

PAL (Phase Alternate Line)

The video broadcast standard for Europe and parts of Asia.


In live action, moving the picture area across the screen.  Achieved by pivoting the camera in a horizontal plane.  In animation, moving the art, or an element thereof, across the screen.  Usually achieved by moving the art in any direction.

Pencil Test

In animation, a test in which the pencil drawings are photographed to determine where corrections are needed before the final art is rendered.


A test commercial made using a series of photographs edited together with a soundtrack.


Employed when required by law.  Location-dependent.

Pre-production Meeting

A meeting of the Director, client, agency, Producer, Production Supervisor and Technical Adviser before start of film production to resolve script and production problems and to establish schedules and/or photographic locations and requirements.

Pre-Visualization (Pre-Viz)

With regard to animation, a pre-viz is a tool to test movement, timing and geometry of animation sequences for approval. The animated elements or characters are in wireframe or opaque skins as no detail in look, lighting or advanced rigging has occurred. Stages of pre-visualization are used for sequential approvals in order to avoid “re-work” in core elements after lighting and rendering have occurred.


Liaison between the agency/client and Director/crew.  Responsible for budget.

Production Assistant (PA)

General, all-purpose Production Assistant, who performs many functions.  Usually, several PAs are required for a project.

Production Manager

Assists Producer.  Handles purchase orders, petty cash, time sheets, etc.


Articles used to dress a set, e.g., furniture, flowers, fountain pens, and fishing rods.


Additional payments made to the talent for the right to air the spot.  Also known as residual payments.

Rough Cut

The first assembly of various scenes in the continuity to be used in a completed film, offline cut digital file.

SAG (Screen Actors Guild)

The union representing all Singers and Actors in film production.


In talent payments, the minimum wage set by the unions.  Typically, if additional product exclusivity is requested (beyond directly competitive products), talent may request over scale payment, i.e., scale and one-half or double scale, to compensate them for being unable to pursue work in these additional categories.  This would be a consideration if the Brand does not want to risk seeing their talent in another commercial.


A piece of continuous action made in one place at one time.  Each scene is numbered in the script and on the slate as a means of reference and identification.

Scenic Person

Applies paint/wallpaper to location or sets.


Writing or arranging music for a motion picture.

Scratch Track

A preliminary recording of narration used in initial editorial stages.  Not intended to be used as the final track.

Script Supervisor

Keeps detailed script notes.  Responsible for maintaining continuity of matching scenes.  Interacts with the clapper/loader and sound mixer to make sure each take has a consistent and meaningful slate.

Second (2nd)) AD (Assistant Director)

Assistant to the first AD.  Handles talent calls, contracts and setting of background extras.

Session Fee

The minimum union scale fee for performing in a recording session or on camera.


An interior or exterior setting in a studio, on a motion picture lot or on location.  The area photographed is a set.


Common term for a take.


High end editing effects and conform software.  Similar to Flame® but with fewer tool kits and capabilities.

Sound Effects (SFX)

Any special effects on a soundtrack, such as the sound of an object dropping or a door closing.


The general name for a commercial, which may be :10, :15, :30, or :60 long.

Stealamatic (a.k.a. Ripamatic)

A test commercial made using existing video or art edited together with a soundtrack.

Still Photographer

Shoots stills on set or location.

Stock Footage

Motion picture scenes taken from previous production or from a film library for use in a new picture.

Stop Motion (Single Frame)

Exposing one frame at a time instead of running the camera continuously.  A method used in animation.


Designs and supervises the construction and fitting of special costumes.  Selects, buys, rents clothing for talent.


A type of photography, where small objects can be handled within the working confines of a tabletop.


A single bit of action shot once.  Several “takes” of a scene are normally required before the Director, Camera Operator, and others are satisfied.


Collective name for all performers.


Drives all vehicles transporting equipment, props, cranes, etc.


Film to tape transfer.  Reproducing a film image onto videotape or digital media from positive film or negative.

Teleprompter Operator

Operates equipment that displays Actors’ lines while film is rolling.


Any graphic material shown in a broadcast.

Video Master

Final completed master videotape or digital file.


Recording made with an off-screen narrator.

VTR Operator

Operates videotape recorder or hard disk recorder.  Records and plays back what the camera is recording.

Wardrobe Attendant

Assists the Stylist, organizes wardrobe, handles alterations, maintains wardrobe.

Weather Day

A day of additional production costs caused by weather problems such as rain, snow, wind, etc.

Welfare Teacher

Required when mandated by child labor laws.


Change in apparent distance between camera and subject, caused by a variable focal length lens during actual shooting.  In animation, the fast vertical move of the fixed lens, closer to or farther from the subject by means of animation camera movement.



Any type of photo, drawing, transparency, slide, color print, etc.

Bleed Size

The space (width and height) that magazines require to have your visuals run off the page.  This is always bigger than the trim.

Closing Date

The date on which release materials are due to a publication.


Original hand-drawn artwork of some form.

Keyline and Assembly

Keyline on a mechanical shows the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements.  The digital layout file and the photos are merged in the assembling process.

Laser Prints

Color copies generated from a computer.


An ad design as basic as a hand-drawn representation or pictures cut from old magazines.


Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other copy complete with instructions to the printer.

Pre-Press Proof

An initial proof representative of the final positioning and color.  It is not produced by the printing (ink on paper) process.  It’s the first proof the agency sees when the ad is fully composed.

Press Proof

The proof produced by printing ink on paper.

Process Colors

Inks used for four-color process printing, i.e., cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.


A term generally meaning printing something again; used frequently when an agency receives many copies of the ad they created.  Often these are printed by the publication and sent to the agency.


Color-correction on illustrations, photos or proofs.

ROP (Run Of Paper)

Also referred to as “run of book.”  Refers to an ad that is printed as an integral part of a newspaper or magazine.


System where item is placed on scanner – drum is round, flatbed is flat – and electronically digitized to be manipulated, output or stored on a computer.

Screen Ruling

Number of halftone dots per running inch.

Stock Photography

A supply of photographs licensed for specific uses.  Used to fulfill the needs of creative assignments instead of hiring a Photographer.  Images may come from stock photo houses or from a Photographer’s existing photo library.

Stock Photography, Rights-Managed

A copyright license granting the one-time use of a photo as specified by the license.  For other uses an additional license needs to be purchased.  Rights-managed licenses can be given on a non-exclusive or exclusive basis.

Stock Photography, Royalty-Free

A copyright license granting the one-time use of a photo without restrictions.  The image may then be used in several projects without having to purchase an additional license.  Royalty-free licenses cannot be given on an exclusive basis.


Mostly an old-fashioned term referring to the process of “setting type” – these days type is “set” by the computer


When a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it prior to completing the transaction.

Activity Audit
Independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits, and unique users. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics. Formerly known as a count audit.

Ad Audience
The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.

Ad Banner
A graphic image or other media object used as an advertisement.

Ad Campaign Audit
An activity audit for a specific ad campaign.

Ad Centric Measurement
Audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server’s own server logs.

Ad Click
A measurement of the user-initiated action of responding to (such as clicking on) an ad element causing a re-direct to another Web location or another frame or page within the advertisement.
There are three types of ad clicks:

  • click-throughs
  • in-unit clicks
  • mouseovers

Ad click-throughs should be tracked and reported as a 302 redirect at the ad server and should filter out robotic activity.

Ad Click Rate
Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.

Ad Display/Ad Delivered
When an ad is successfully displayed on the user’s computer screen.

Ad Download
When an ad is downloaded by a server to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested, but aborted or abandoned before actually being downloaded to the browser, and hence there would be no opportunity to see the ad by the user.

Ad Impression
An ad that is served to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested by the user’s browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads; or
A measurement of responses from an ad delivery system to an ad request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and is recorded at a point as late as possible in the process of delivery of the creative material to the user’s browser — therefore closest to the actual opportunity to see by the user.

Ad Impression Ratio
Click-throughs divided by ad impressions.

Ad Insertion
When an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.

Ad Materials
The creative artwork, copy, active URLs and active target sites that are due to the seller prior to the initiation of the ad campaign.

Ad Network
An aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad networks are the sales representatives for the Web sites within the network.

Ad Recall
A measure of advertising effectiveness in which samples of respondents are exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time are asked if they recall the ad. Ad recall can be on an aided or unaided basis. Aided ad recall is when the respondent is told the name of the brand or category being advertised.

Ad Request
The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user’s action as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.

Ad Serving
The delivery of ads by a server to an end user’s computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a Web publisher or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.

Ad Space
The location on a page of a site in which an advertisement can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. Multiple ad spaces can exist on a single page.

Ad Stream
The series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site (also impression stream).

Ad View
When the ad is actually seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.

Ad Window
Separate from the content window.

A commercial message targeted to an advertiser’s customer or prospect.

A unique identifier for a computer or site online, usually a URL for a Web site or marked with an @ for an e-mail address. Literally, it is how one computer finds the location of another computer using the Internet.

Advertising Revenue
Revenue realized from the sale of advertising.

Affiliate Marketing
An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.

Affinity Marketing
Selling products or services to customers on the basis of their established buying patterns. E-mail promotions, online or offline advertising can communicate the offer.

Animated Advertisement
An ad that changes over time. For example, an animated ad is an interactive Java applet or Shockwave or GIF89a file.

Animated GIF
An animation created by combining multiple GIF images in one file. The result is multiple images, displayed one after another, that give the appearance of movement.

A small, self-contained software application that is most often used by browsers to automatically display animation and/or to perform database queries requested by the user.

Third party validation of log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet activity/advertising. Activity audits validate measurement counts. Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement.

A central network connecting other networks together.

The transmission rate of a communications line or system, expressed either as cycles per second/hertz for analog lines, or as bits (bps) or kilobits per second (Kbps) for digital systems; or

Line speed; or

The amount of information that can be transmitted over communications lines at one time.

A graphic image displayed on an HTML page used as an ad.

A snippet of code placed in an ad, on a Web page, or in an e-mail that helps measure whether the ad, page or e-mail was delivered to the browser and to track actions in general. Also known as a clear GIF or pixel tag.

A test version of a product, such as a Web site or software, prior to final release.

A term referring to any advertisement that is not a banner, e.g., an interstitial, streaming video ads, etc.

Bonus Impressions
Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

What happens when e-mails are returned to the mail server as undeliverable.

An Internet connection that delivers a relatively high bit rate – any bit rate at or above 100 Kbps. Cable modems, DSL and ISDN all offer broadband connections.

A software program that can request, download, cache and display documents available on the World Wide Web. Browsers can be either text-based or graphical.

BtoB/B2B (Business-to-Business)
Businesses whose customers are other businesses.

BtoC/B2C (Business-to-Consumer)
Businesses whose major customers are consumers.

When a streaming media player saves portions of a streaming media file until there is enough information for the stream to begin playing.

Clickable graphic that contains certain functionality, such as taking one someplace or executing a program

Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested content/files/pages in order to speed its delivery to the user. Cache can be local (i.e., on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM), and disk (hard drive) cache. Today, Web browsers cause virtually all data viewed to be cached on a user’s computer.

Cached Ad Impressions
The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or a proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.

Click Down
The action of clicking on an element within an ad and having another file displayed on the user’s screen, normally below or above the initial ad. Click down ads allow the user to stay on the same Web page and provide the advertiser a larger pallet to communicate their message.

Click Rate
Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.

The electronic path a user takes while navigating from site to site, and from page to page within a site; or

A comprehensive body of data describing the sequence of activity between a user’s browser and any other Internet resource, such as a Web site or third party ad server.

The action of following a hyperlink within an advertisement or editorial content to another Web site or another page or frame within the Web site.

Similar to click down or click. But more commonly, click-withins are ads that allow the user to “drill down” and click, while remaining in the advertisement, not leaving the site on which they are residing.

Metric that measures the reaction of a user to an Internet ad. There are three types of clicks: click-throughs, in-unit clicks, and mouseovers; or

The opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server; or

The result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links to the advertiser’s intended Web site or another page or frame within the Web site; or

Metric that measures the reaction of a user to hot-linked editorial content.

Client-Initiated Ad Impression
One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods – server-initiated and client-initiated. Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user’s browser for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher’s ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process.

Content Integration
Advertising woven into editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope.

A file on the user’s browser that uniquely identifies the user’s browser. There are two types of cookies: persistent cookies and session cookies. Session cookies are temporary and are erased when the browser exits. Persistent cookies remain on the user’s hard drive until the user erases them or until they expire.

COPPA (Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act)
Congress enacted the COPPA in 1998 to prohibit unfair or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, or disclosure of personally identifiable information from and about children on the Internet. Section 6502(b)(1) of the Act sets forth a series of general privacy protections to prevent unfair or deceptive online information collection from or about children, and directs the Commission to adopt regulations to implement those protections. The Act requires operators of Web sites directed to children and operators who knowingly collect personal information from children to:

  • provide parents notice of their information practices;
  • obtain prior verifiable parental consent for the collection, use, and/or disclosure of personal information from children (with certain limited exceptions for the collection of “online contact information,” e.g., an e-mail address);
  • provide a parent, upon request, with the means to review the personal information collected from his/her child;
  • provide a parent with the opportunity to prevent the further use of personal information that has already been collected, or the future collection of personal information from that child;
  • limit collection of personal information for a child’s online participation in a game, prize offer, or other activity to information that is reasonably necessary for the activity; and
  • establish and maintain reasonable procedures to protect the confidentiality, security, and integrity of the personal information collected.

COPPR (Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule)
Issued by the FTC in October 1999 the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule went into effect on April 21, 2000, and implements the requirements of the COPPA by requiring operators of Web sites or online services directed to children and operators of Web sites or online services who have actual knowledge that the person from whom they seek information is a child:

  • to post prominent links on their Web sites to a notice of how they collect, use, and/or disclose personal information from children;
  • with certain exceptions, to notify parents that they wish to collect information from their children and obtain parental consent prior to collecting, using, and/or disclosing such information;
  • not to condition a child’s participation in online activities on the provision of more personal information than is reasonably necessary to participate in the activity;
  • to allow parents the opportunity to review and/or have their children’s information deleted from the operator’s database and to prohibit further collection from the child; and
  • to establish procedures to protect the confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information they collect from children. As directed by the COPPA, the Rule also provides a safe harbor for operators following Commission-approved self-regulatory guidelines. See for more information.

CPA (Cost-per-Action)
Cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. “Actions” include such things as a sales transaction, a customer acquisition, or a click.

CPC (Cost-per-click)
Cost of advertising based on the number of clicks received.

CPC (Cost-per-Customer)
The cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer.

CPL (Cost-per-lead)
Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received.

CPM (Cost-per-thousand)
Media term describing the cost of 1,000 impressions. For example, a Web site that charges $1,500 per ad and reports 100,000 visits has a CPM of $15 ($1,500 divided by 100).

CPM pricing model
Pricing model based on the cost of delivering ad impressions.

CPO (Cost-per-Order)
Cost of advertising based on the number of orders received. Also called Cost-per-Transaction.

CPS (Cost-per-Sale)
The advertiser’s cost to generate one sales transaction.

CPTM (Cost per Targeted Thousand Impressions)
Implying that the audience one is trying to reach is defined by particular demographics or other specific characteristics, such as male golfers age 18-25. The difference between CPM and CPTM is that CPM is for gross impressions, while CPTM is for targeted impressions.

Customer relationship marketing. Marketing specifically targeted to increasing brand loyalty.

Daughter Window
An ad that runs in a separate ad window associated with a concurrently displayed banner. In normal practice, the content and banner are rendered first and the daughter window appears thereafter.

Successful download giving the user an opportunity to see.

Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site.

Drill Down
When an online user accesses more and more pages of the Web site, i.e., he or she goes deeper into the content of the site.

Dynamic Ad Placement
The process by which an ad is inserted into a page in response to a user’s request. Dynamic ad placement allows alteration of specific ads placed on a page based on any data available to the placement program. At its simplest, dynamic ad placement allows for multiple ads to be rotated through one or more spaces. In more sophisticated examples, the ad placement could be affected by demographic data or usage history for the current user.

Dynamic Rotation
Delivery of ads on a rotating, random basis so that users are exposed to different ads and ads are served in different pages of the site.

The process of selling products or services via the Web.

E-mail – electronic mail
Text files that are sent from one person to another over the Internet.

E-mail Campaign
Advertising campaign distributed via e-mail.

A networking technology that links computers together.

Expandable Banners
A banner ad which can expand to as large as 468 x 240 after a user clicks on it or after a user moves his/her cursor over the banner.

An intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders via a valid username and password.

Reference to the number of people who view, or “lay their eyes on,” a certain advertisement.

Frequently asked questions.

A security barrier placed between an organization’s internal computer network and the Internet. A firewall is based on rules that allow and disallow traffic to pass, based on the level of security and filtering a network administrator wishes to employ.

Macromedia’s vector-based graphics file format that is used to display interactive animations on a Web page. This form of rich media technology is available via a plug-in.

Floating Ads
An ad or ads that appear within the main browser window on top of the Web page’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.

Multiple, independent sections used to create a single Web page. Each frame is built as a separate HTML file but with one “master” file to control the placement of each section.

The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site can use cookies in order to manage ad frequency.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Internet protocol that facilitates transfer of files.

GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)
A graphic format which uses compression to store and display images.

Gross Exposures
The total number of times an ad is served, including duplicate downloads to the same person.

GUI (Graphical Interchange Format)
A way of enabling users to interact with the computer using visual icons and a mouse rather than a command-like prompt/interpreter.

History Lists
A pull-down menu that displays the sites you’ve recently visited so you can return to the site instantly or view your latest session. The same mechanism makes it possible for servers to track where you were before visiting a particular site.

When users access a Web site, their computer sends a request to the site’s server to begin downloading a page. Each element of a requested page (including graphics, text, interactive items) is recorded by the site’s Web server log file as a “hit.”

Home Page
The page designated as the main point of entry of a Web site (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet. Typically, it welcomes you and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to other pages within the site.

Any computer on a network that offers services or connectivity to other computers on the network. A host has an IP address associated with it.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
A set of codes called markup tags in a plain text (*.txt) file that determine what information is retrieved and how it is rendered by a browser. There are two kinds of markup tags: anchor and format. Anchor tags determine what is retrieved, and format tags determine how it is rendered.

HTTP (Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol)
The format most commonly used to transfer documents on the World Wide Web.

Hybrid Pricing
Pricing model that is based on a combination of a CPM pricing model and a performance-based pricing model. See CPM pricing model and performance-based pricing model.

HTML programming which redirects the user to a new URL when the individual clicks on hypertext.

Text or graphical elements on a page that activates a hyperlink when clicked.

A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to opportunity to see the page by the user.

Actual placement of an ad in a document, as recorded by the ad server.

Insertion Order
Purchase order between a seller of interactive advertising and a buyer (usually an advertiser or its agency).

Interactive Advertising
All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, e-mail, keyword searches, referrals, slotting fees, classified ads, and interactive television commercials.

Internal Page Impressions
Web site activity that is generated by individuals with IP addresses known to be affiliated with the Web site owner. Internal activity that is associated with administration and maintenance of the site should be excluded from the traffic or measurement report.

A worldwide system of computer networks providing reliable and redundant connectivity between disparate computers and systems by using common transport and data protocols.

Interstitial Ads
Ads that appear between two content pages. Also known as transition ads, intermercial ads, splash pages, and Flash pages.

A network based on TCP/IP protocols that belongs to an organization, usually a corporation, and is accessible only by the organization’s members, employees or others with authorization.

The number of ads available for sale on a Web site.

IP (Internet Protocol)
A protocol telling the network how packets are addressed and routed.

IP Address
Internet protocol numerical address assigned to each computer on the network so that its location and activities can be distinguished from other computers

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
An organization that provides access to the Internet. An ISP can be a commercial provider, a corporate computer network, a school, college, university, or the government.

A programming language designed for building applications on the Internet. It allows for advanced features, increased animation detail and real-time updates.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
File format that uses a compression technique to reduce the size (number of bytes) of graphic files.

Jump Page Ad
A microsite that is reached via click-through from button or banner ad. The jump page itself can list several topics, which are linked to either the advertiser’s site or the publisher’s site.

Specific word(s) entered into a search engine by the user that results in a list of Web sites related to the key word. The key word can be purchased by advertisers in order to direct the hyperlink opportunity to the advertiser’s site or to serve an ad related to the user’s search.

LAN (Local Area Network)
A group of computers connected together (a network) which are at one physical location.

An electronic connection between two Web sites. Also called “hot link” and hyperlink.

A mailing list comprised of e-mail addresses.

A program that automatically sends e-mail to a list of subscribers or listserv.

Usually used with upload or download, it means to transfer files or software from one computer or server to another computer or server. In other words, it is the movement of information online.

Log File
A file that records transactions that have occurred on the Web server. Some of the types of data which are collected are: date/time stamp, URL served, IP address of requestor, status code of request, user agent string, previous URL of requestor, etc. Use of the extended log file format is preferable.

The identification or name used to access a computer, network, or site.

Mailing List
An automatically distributed e-mail message on a particular topic going to certain individuals.

Additional ad impressions that are negotiated in order to make up for the shortfall of ads delivered versus the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

Multi-page ads accessed via click-through from initial ad. User stays on the publisher’s Web site, but has access to more information from the advertiser than a standard ad format allows.

Device that transfers digital signals to analog signals and vice versa suitable for sending across phone or cable lines.

Modem Speeds
The speed at which one connects to the Internet through his/her computer’s modem. There are dial-up and cable modems.

The process by which a user places his/her mouse over a media object, without clicking.

Non-Registered User
Someone who visits a Web site and elects not to, or is not required to, provide certain information, and hence may be denied access to part of the site.

The ability to request video, audio, or information to be sent to the screen immediately by clicking something on the screen referring to that choice.

Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company’s products and services.

Opt-In E-mail
Lists of Internet users who have voluntarily signed up to receive commercial e-mail about topics of interest.

When a company states that it plans to market its products and services to an individual unless the individual asks to be removed from the company’s mailing list.

A document having a specific URL and comprised of a set of associated files. A page may contain text, images, and other online elements. It may be static or dynamically generated.

Page Impression
A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to the opportunity to see the page by the user.

Page View
When the page is actually seen by the user.

A group of letters and/or numbers that allow a unique user access to a secured Web site and/or a secure area of a Web site.

An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many users clicked on an online ad or e-mail message.

An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay based on how many users were served their ads.

An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay for each “sales lead” generated. For example, an advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form.

An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad.

PDF files (Portable Document Format)
A translation format developed by Adobe used primarily for distributing files across a network, or on a Web site. Files with a .pdf extension have been created in another application and then translated into .pdf files so they can be viewed by anyone, regardless of platform.

Performance Pricing Model
An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads.

Permission Marketing
When an individual has given a company permission to market its products and services to the individual.

PIN (Personal Identification Number)
A group of numbers that allow a unique user access to a secured Web site and/or a secure area of a Web site.

Picture element (single illuminated dot) on a computer monitor. The metric used to indicate the size of Internet ads.

The type of computer or operating system on which a software application runs, e.g., PC, Macintosh, Unix or WebTV.

A program application that can easily be installed and used as part of a Web browser. Once installed, the browser recognizes plug-in applications and their function integrated into the main HTML file being presented.

Pop-Under Ad
Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window. Pop-under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimized.

Pop-Up Ad
Ad that appears in a separate window on top of content already on-screen. Similar to a daughter window, but without an associated banner.

Pop-Up Transitional
Initiates play in a separate ad window during the transition between content pages. Continues while content is simultaneously being rendered. Depending primarily on line-speed, play of a transitional ad may finish before or after content rendering is completed.

A Web site that often serves as a starting point for a Web user’s session. It typically provides services such as search, directory of Web sites, news, weather, e-mail, homepage space, stock quotes, sports news, entertainment, telephone directory information, area maps, and chat or message boards.

Storing advertising or content in a computer’s RAM or hard disk memory before it is displayed on the user’s screen, rather than at the time that it plays, to reduce delays in rendering.

Privacy Policy
A statement about what information is being collected; how the information being collected is being used; how an individual can access his/her own data collected; how the individual can opt-out; and what security measures are being taken by the parties collecting the data.

Process Audit
Third party validation of internal control processes associated with measurement.

The practice of tracking information about consumers’ interests by monitoring their movements online. This can be done without using any personal information, but simply by analyzing the content, URL’s, and other information about a user’s browsing path/click-stream.

Push Advertising
Pro-active, partial screen, dynamic advertisement that comes in various formats.

A request for information, usually to a search engine.

Unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percent of the universe for the demographic category; also called unduplicated audience; or

The total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.

Referral Link
The referring page, or referral link is a place from which the user clicked to get to the current page. In other words, since a hyperlink connects one URL to another, in clicking on a link the browser moves from the referring URL to the destination URL.

A process for site visitors to enter information about themselves. Sites use registration data to enable or enhance targeting of content and ads. Registration can be required or voluntary.

Repeat Visitor
Unique visitor who has accessed a Web site more than once over a specific time period.

Rich Media
A method of communication that incorporates animation, sound, video, and/or interactivity. It can be used either singularly or in combination with the following technologies: streaming media, sound, Flash, and with programming languages such as Java, JavaScript, and DHTML. It is deployed via standard Web and wireless applications including e-mail, Web design, banners, buttons, and interstitials.

ROI (Return on Investment)
Net profit divided by investment.

RON (Run-of-Network)
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventor. The advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.

ROS (Run-of-Site)
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby ads run across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections.

Files that initiate routines like generating Web pages dynamically in response to user input.

Search Engine
A program that helps Web users find information on the Internet. The method for finding this information is usually done by maintaining an index of Web resources that can be queried for the keywords or concepts entered by the user.

Sell-Through Rate
The percentage of ad inventory sold as opposed to traded or bartered.

A computer that distributes files which are shared across a LAN, WAN, or the Internet. Also known as a “host.”

Server Pull
A process whereby a user’s browser maintains an automated or customized connection or profile with a Web server. The browser usually sets up a unique request that is recorded and stored electronically for future reference. Examples are: requests for the automated delivery of e-mail newsletters, the request for Web content based on a specific search criteria determined by the user, or setting up a personalized Web page that customizes the information delivered to the user based on pre-determined self selections.

Server Push
A process whereby a server maintains an open connection with a browser after the initial request for a page. Through this open connection the server continues to provide updated pages and content even though the visitor has made no further direct requests for such information.

Server-Initiated Ad Impression
One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods – server-initiated and client-initiated. Server-initiated ad counting uses the publisher’s Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a server-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher’s ad server or the Web content server, or later in the process.

A sequence of Internet activity made by one user at one site. If a user makes no request from a site during a 30 minute period of time, the next content or ad request would then constitute the beginning of a new visit; or

A series of transactions performed by a user that can be tracked across successive Web sites. For example, in a single session, a user may start on a publisher’s Web site, click on an advertisement and then go to an advertiser’s Web site and make a purchase.

Session Cookies
Cookies that are loaded into a computer’s RAM, and only work during that browser session. When the browser exits, these cookies are erased. They are “temporary cookies,” and no cookie is written to a user’s hard drive.

A browser plug-in developed by Macromedia that allows multimedia objects to appear on the Web (animation, audio and video).

Site-Centric Measurement
Audience measurement derived from a Web site’s own server logs.

Customized and interchangeable sets of graphics, which allow Internet users to continually change the look of their desktops or browsers, without changing their settings or functionality. Skins are a type of marketing tool.

Slotting Fee
A fee charged to advertisers by media companies to get premium positioning on their site, category exclusivity or some other special treatment. It is similar to slotting allowances charged by retailers.

SMPT (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
The protocol used to transfer e-mail.

Software that detects capabilities of the user’s browser (looking for such things as Java capabilities, plug-ins, screen resolution, and bandwidth).

Location on a page of a site in which an ad can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. There can be multiple spaces on a single page.

Slang term describing unsolicited e-mail.

A program that automatically fetches Web pages. Spiders are used to feed pages to search engines. It is called a spider because it crawls over the Web.

Splash Page
A preliminary page that precedes the user-requested page of a Web site that usually promotes a particular site feature or provides advertising. A splash page is timed to move on to the requested page after a short period of time or a click.

An association with a Web site in some way that gives an Advertiser some particular visibility and advantage above that of run-of-site advertising. When associated with specific content, sponsorship can provide a more targeted audience than run-of-site ad buys.

Static Ad Placement/Static Rotation
Ads that remain on a Web page for a specified period of time; or

Embedded ads.

A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. Stickiness is usually measured by the duration of the visit.

Technology that permits continuous audio and video delivered to a computer from a remote Web site; or

An Internet data transfer technique that allows the user to see and hear audio and video files.

Streaming Media Player
A software program that decompresses audio and/or video files so the user can hear and/or see the video or audio file. Some examples are Real Player™, Windows Media and Quick Time Player.

An interstitial format developed by Unicast which is fully pre-cached before playing. Specs are 550 x 480 pixels (2/3 of screen), up to 100K file size and up to 20 seconds in length.

Exploring the World Wide Web.

Textual Ad Impressions
The delivery of a text-based advertisement to a browser. To compensate for slow Internet connections, visitors may disable “auto load images” in their graphical browser. When they reach a page that contains an advertisement, they see a marker and the advertiser’s message in text format in place of the graphical ad.

Third-Party Ad Server
Independent outsourced companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking, and analyzing the results of online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers’ declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.

Total Ad Impressions
The total of all graphical and textual ad impressions delivered, regardless of the source.

Total Visits
Total number of browsers accessing a Web site within a specific time period.

The number of visits and/or visitors who come to a Web site.

Transitional Ad
An ad that is displayed between Web pages. In other words, the user sees an advertisement as he/she navigates between page ‘a’ and page ‘b.’ Also known as an interstitial.

Transitional Pop Up
An ad that pops up in a separate ad window between content pages.

Unique User/Visitor
Unique individual or browser that has either accessed a site or that has been served unique content and/or ads such as e-mail, newsletters, interstitials, and pop-under ads. User registration or cookies can identify unique users.

Total population of audience being measured.

To send data from a computer to a network. An example of uploading data is sending e-mail.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The unique identifying address of any particular page on the Web. It contains all the information required to locate a resource, including its protocol (usually HTTP), server domain name (or IP address), file path (directory and name) and format (usually HTML or CGI).

An individual with access to the World Wide Web.

User Centric Measurement
Web audience measurement based on the behavior of a sample of web users.

User Registration
Information contributed by an individual that usually includes characteristics such as the person’s age, gender, zip code, and often much more. A site’s registration system is usually based on an ID code or password to allow the site to determine the number of unique visitors and to track a visitor’s behavior within that site.

Person viewing content or ads on the Web. There is currently no way to measure viewers.

Measurement that has been filtered for robotic activity of one or more text and/or graphics downloads from a site without 30 consecutive minutes of inactivity and which can be reasonably attributed to a single browser for a single session.

Visit Duration
The length of time the visitor is exposed to a specific ad, Web page, or Web site during a single session.

Individual or browser that accesses a Web site within a specific time period.

WAN (Wide Area Network)
A group of computers connected together (a network), which are not located at the same physical location.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
A specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular mobile telephones, PDAs and others can be used for Internet-based access.

WAP device
Any device (e.g., mobile phone, PDA, or simulator) that allows access to wireless content.

Web Site
The virtual location (domain) for an organization or individual’s presence on the World Wide Web.

Real-time or pre-recorded delivery of a live event’s audio, video, or animation over the Internet.

The percentage of clicks vs. impressions on an ad within a specific page. Also called ad click rate.

adminmraGlossary of Terms